Pune is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. Capital of Pune District and the 8th largest urban agglomeration in India with a population of 5 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra. It is located roughly 150 kilometers east of Mumbai at an altitude of 560 meters above sea level. It is situated at the eastern edge of the Western ghats on the Deccan plateau.
Pune is widely considered the cultural capital of Maharashtra. Pune has several reputed colleges and other educational institutions — for this reason it is called the Oxford of the East (or 'Oxford of India'). It has a very strong presence in the automobile sector and is on its way to consolidate its position as the 'Detroit of India' too. It is now home to many software and IT companies.It is also called as "Queen of Deccan"
The original agricultural settlement had become known as Punnaka by the 8th century. The earliest evidence (copper plates dating 758 AD and 768 AD) reveals that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakutas. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex in the middle of the city was built in this era.
Pune came under Mughal rule in the 17th century.
Until circa 1818, it continued to be ruled by various dynasties, especially the Nizamshahi Sultans, Mughals, and the Marathas. During the mid 17th century it became the temporary residence of the Maratha King Shivaji. Maximum Peths (sections) of the city have established during Shivaji Raje’s Period like, Guruwar, Somwar, Ganesh, Ghorpade later during Peshwa period Peths like Sadashiv, Narayan, Rasta and Nana Peths were developed. In 1749 A.D, it gained prominence as the capital of the Peshwa, prime minister of the Maratha King Shahu. It was during this period that the city expanded considerably.
Pune is a major industrial centre, growing rapidly every year. It is home to one of the world's largest two-wheeler manufacturers, Bajaj Auto. Other automobile majors are Tata Motors, India's largest passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturer, DaimlerChrysler, which has an assembly line for its Mercedes-Benz brand, Kinetic Engineering and Force Motors Ltd (previously known as Bajaj Tempo). It is soon going to house General Motors, Volkswagan, FIAT who have annouced their plans to set shops around Pune. Auto component major TATA Autocomp Systems Limited (TACO) is based primarily in Pune. TACO has manufacturing units in various industrial zones of Pune and outskirts. Engineering goods industries situated in Pune are Bharat Forge Ltd, the world's second largest forging company, Cummins Engines Co Ltd, has its Research & Technology India center, Thermax Limited a global player providing sustainable solutions in energy and environment, Alfa Laval, Sandvik Asia, Thyssen Krupp (formerly Buckau Wolff), KSB Pumps, Finolex, Greaves India and Forbes Marshall, among others. Electronic goods giants like Whirlpool and LG have appliance manufacturing plants. Food majors like Frito Lay and Coca Cola also have their food processing plants. Black & Veatch, a large global engineering and construction company also has a large presence in Pune. Apart from this Pune houses many mid and small industries. The international air connectivity had helped many volume produce growers in the surrounding districts to export their goods conveniently.