Bhubaneswar pronunciation in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, "The Lord of the Universe") is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Orissa, India. Once the capital of ancient Kalinga, the city has a long history and is today a center for commerce and religious activity. However, the modern city of Bhubaneswar was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. It became the modern capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain.Before Bhubaneswar,Cuttack was the capital of Orissa till 1947.Both Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are known as the "twin cities" of Orissa. With its vast variety of Hindu temples, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as the temple city of India
The history of the Bhubaneswar-Khurda region goes back 2000 years. Emperor Kharavela
established his capital in Sisupalgarh which is on the outskirts
of the city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri
caves and Khandagiri caves are evidence of the region's
antiquity. Modern Bhubaneswar was originally meant to be
a well planned city with wide roads and many gardens and
parks. The plan was made by Otto H. Königsberger , a German
town planner. Though part of the city has stayed faithful
to the plan,it has grown rapidly over the last few decades
and has made the planning process unwieldy.
Having merged its intriguing past so uniquely with its modern aspirations, it forms an integral link in the Golden Triangle that incorporates the holy city of Puri and Konark. The area is attractive to tourists for its spiritual significance. To the east are the famous Sun temple of Konark and the Jagannath Temple of Puri. The Lingaraj Temple of old Bhubaneswar, built in the 11th century, is another temple noted for its ancient history. The Khandagiri and Dhauligiri, situated on the outskirts of the city, carry monuments of the Jain monks since the times of the great king Kharavela. Another such monument is the Shantistupa, which was built as a symbol of peace at the site where the great Kalinga War took place between Emperor Ashoka and Kalinga (the old empire of Orissa).
Bhubaneswar is known for its architecture and ancient temples The imposing spire of the Lingaraj Temple, the quiet beauty of the Vishwa Shanti Stupa and the pink translucence of the Mahavira Jain Temple in nearby Khandagiri, inspire feelings of wonder at their sheer beauty and their cross-cultural permutations.
The State Museum of Bhubaneswar offers an extensive selection of archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Orissa's natural and tribal history. The Tribal Research Institute Museum with its authentic tribal dwellings, created by the tribal craftsmen offers a bird's eye view of the State's tribal heritage
Bhubaneswar was meant to house the state's machinery and hence was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The city's economy had few major players till the 1990s and was dominated by Public Sector Units, retail and small scale manufacturing.
With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 90s, Bhubaneswar received large investments in the fields of telecommunications, IT and higher education, particularly engineering. The city accounts for almost all of the IT revenue of Orissa and is one of the fastest growing regions in India in this sector. Higher Technical Education is also a big market. The city is home to around 30 engineering colleges (as of 2007) and the number is growing every year. Around 20000 engineers graduate with the Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) degree every year. The city is also home to many tutorials and coaching institutes who prepare students for various entrance exams. The large density has earned the city the sobriquet of "Kota of the East".
Retail and Real Estate have also emerged as big players. Although the first shopping mall only opened in 2004, the response was positive enough for three more shopping malls to open up in the city. Large corporations like DLF Universal and Reliance Industries have entered the real estate market in the city. Despite this rapid growth, a large number of the populace live in slums and are below the poverty line. Migration from rural areas has led to the growth of slums which are a major challenge to the city's growth. The slum dwellers work as auto rickshaw drivers or small vendors but this is not true for everyone. A lot of them are unemployed and are being drawn into crime.