Jaipur pronunciation also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. Historically rendered as Jeypore, the city is also the capital of Jaipur District. Jaipur is the former capital of the princely state of Jaipur. Founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber. By 2003, after only 276 years, the population had reached approximately 2.7 million.
Built of pink stucco in imitation of sandstone, the city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six quarters separated by broad streets 111 ft (34 m) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex (the Hawa Mahal, or palace of winds), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. Another noteworthy building is Sawai Jai Singh's observatory, Jantar Mantar. With its rich and colourful past, resplendent with tales of valour and bravery, Jaipur is now one of the most important heritage cities in India, and is a must-see for tourists coming to India.
City was established in 1727 by maharaja Jai Singh II as a new capital of Kachwaha dynasty (Dhundhar region). Then the capital was shifted from the historical capital Amber.
In the 19th century the city grew rapidly and became prosperous; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas. The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris. The city has a vibrant and healthy Muslim population.