Bandhavgarh National ParkBandhavgarh National Parkis located in Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh state in India. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968 with an area of 105 km². The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals 437 km². The park derives its name from the most prominent hillock of the area, which is said to be given by Lord Rama to his brother Laxman to keep a watch on Lanka. Hence the name Bandhavgarh . This is a Small National Park, Compact, yet full of game. The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is the highest known in India. This is also white tiger country. These have been found in the old state of Rewa for many years. Maharaja Martand Singh captured the last known in 1951. This white tiger, Mohan, is now stuffed and on display in the palace of the Maharajas of Rewa.
TopographyBandhavgarh National Park lies on the extreme north- eastern border of the present state of Madhya Pradesh in India and the northern flanks of the eastern Satpuda Mountain range. Latitudes and longitudes are 23°30' to 23°46' North and 80°11' to 36'East. The altitude is between 410 m and 810 m. The geology is soft feldspathic sandstone with quartzite. The soil is generally sandy to sandy-loam. More than twenty streams rise or flow through the park. Of these Umrar (forming the western boundary) is the largest. The other important streams are Johilla (eastern boundary), Janadh, Charnganga, Damnar, Banbei, Ambanala and Andhyari Jhiria. All these streams eventually flow into the river Son, which is an important southern tributary to the Ganges.
ClimateThe climate is north Indian monsoon, characterized by well-defined winters, summers and rains. The mercury has been recorded to drop to a low of 2 °C (in January) and a high of 44 °C (in may). Average rainfall is 1173 mm, most of which falls during the monsoons. Some rains result from the cyclones as well, between the months of November and February.
HistoryBandhagarh National Park is a Park with a rich historical past. Prior to becoming a national park, the forests around Bandhavgarh had long been maintained as a Shikargah, or game preserve, of the Maharajas and t heir guests.
In 1947 Rewa State was merged with Madhya Pradesh; Bandhavgarh came under the regulations of Madhya Pradesh. The Maharaja of Rewa still retained the hunting rights. No special conservation measures were taken until 1968, when the areas were constituted as a national park. Since then, numerous steps have been taken to retain Bandhavgarh National Park as an unspoilt natural habitat.
The tourism zone of the park that is regarded by most people, as ‘Bandhavgarh’ is actually a small part of the reserve. This 105 km². Of Jungle, known as Tala range, is richest in terms of biodiversity and yes –tigers, but there are four more ranges in the reserve namely –Magdhi, Kallwah, Khitauli and Panpatha. Together, these five ranges comprise the 'Core' of the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve – a total area of 694 km². There is then, the 'buffer' as well. The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals another 437 km². The legal status as a national park dates back to 1968, but was enjoyed by only the present Tala range for a considerable length of time. It was only in 1993 that the present scheme of things was put in place.
Birth of a Protected AreaThe year of 1972 was the year of the expression of the firm resolve of Indian People to save their wilderness and wildlife. Project tiger happened and then the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 came. It was realized that protection of just the 105 km². of prime Bandhavgarh habitat was not enough, so in 1982, three more ranges namely, Khitauli, Magdhi and Kallawah were added to Tala range (the original Bandhavgarh National Park) to extend the area of Bandhavgarh to 448 km². As Project tiger extended its activities and area of influence, Bandhavgarh was taken in its folds in 1993, and a core of 694 km². Including the previously named ranges and the Panpatha Sanctuary along with a buffer area of 437 km². Was declared as the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve.
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