indian cuisine
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Indian Cuisines

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Chutney

A chutney (British spelling) or chatni (Urdu, Hindi, Bengali or Tamil transliteration) is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy condiments, originally from the Indian subcontinent. Chutney, as a genre, is often similar to the salsa of Latin American cuisine, or European relish insofar as it usually involves a fresh, chopped primary vegetable/fruit with seasonings added, to be used as a condiment for another food.

Chutney may be dry or wet; dry chutney is generally in the form of powder. In India, a chutney is often made to be eaten fresh, using whatever suitable strongly flavoured ingredients are locally traditional or available at the time. It would not normally contain preserving agents, since it is intended to be consumed soon after preparation. The Hindi translation of "to make chutney" is a common idiom meaning "to crush". This is because the process of making chutney often involves the crushing together of the ingredients.[citation needed]

The use of a stone chutney maker is often regarded as vital to create the ideal chutney. It is a small stone bowl (called a "kharal" or "khal" in Hindi), or a flat piece of stone (called a "sil") on which the ingredients are crushed together with a rounded stick of stone or wood (called a "batta", pronounced with a hard 't').
c Chutney is more familiar in North America and Europe in a form that can be stored. To this end, vegetable oil, vinegar, or lemon juice are used to enhance the keeping properties.

Types of chutney

Many authentic chutneys contain significant amounts of fresh green chilli peppers; the other main ingredient can be any of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Most vegetable chutneys are prepared cold in a blender, while many fruit chutneys do require cooking. Popular chutneys include:

* Coconut chutney
* Onion chutney
* Tomato chutney
* Coriander (Cilantro) and/or mint chutney (both are often called Hari chutney, where 'Hari' is Hindi for 'Green')
* Tamarind chutney (Imli chutney)
* Mango chutney (made from unripe, green mangos)
* Lime chutney (made from whole, unripe limes)
* Garlic chutney made from fresh garlic, coconut and groundnut
* Green tomato chutney. Common English recipe to use up unripe tomatoes
* Peach Chutney, predominantly in South African Mrs Ball's Chutney
* Chilli Chutney, predominantly in South African Mrs Ball's Chutney

In temperate countries, chutneys are sometimes made using local main ingredients such as apples, peaches or tomatoes.

American and European styled chutneys are usually fruit, vinegar and sugar, cooked down to a reduction.

Flavourings are always added to the mix. These may include sugar, salt, garlic, tamarind, onion, or ginger.

Spices most commonly include fenugreek, coriander, cumin and hing (asafoetida).

In South Africa there is a traditional commercial variety, Mrs Ball's Chutney, that is made with dried fruit

History

Beginning in the 1600 chutneys were shipped to European countries like England and France as luxury goods. Western imitations were called "mangoed" fruits or vegetables. In the nineteenth century, brands of chutney like Major Grey's or Bengal Club created for Western tastes were shipped to Europe.

Generally these chutneys are fruit, vinegar and sugar cooked down to a reduction.

The tradition of chutney making spread throughout the British empire, especially in the Caribbean and American South where chutney is still a popular condiment for ham, pork and fish.

Chutney by Indian region

* Andhra Pradesh coconut, coriander, red chilli with grams, tomato, onion, and mango chutneys
* Gujarat athanah and hot lime chutneys
* Haryana tamarind chutney
* Himachal Pradesh guava and eggplant chutneys
* Karnataka coconut, coriander, green chilli, mango, onion, peanut, tomato, tamarind,ridgegourd.
* Kerala coconut, pudina (mint), urad dal (a kind of legume), mango, dry fish, shrimp, and onion chutney
* Maharashtra hot mango chutney, guramba, and panchamrit,Mirachicha Thecha. Dry chutneys made with Flax seed, Karale (Niger seed)and Peanut/garlic
* Punjab pudina (mint) chutney, onion chutney, tamarind chutney, mango chutney
* Tamil Nadu coconut, coriander, red chilli with grams, tomato, onion, and mango chutneys
* Uttar Pradesh garlic, sweet and sour mango, and peanut
* West Bengal fruit (mango, plum, apple, and apricot) chutneys

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