Mizoram was inhabited by the tribal groups of Tibeto-Burmese race. During the period 1750-1850 migrations led to settlements in the hills. The tribal groups were governed under a hereditary chieftainship. The Lushais are the most predominant tribe besides a few others like Panei, Lakher, Chakma, Riang. Agriculture is the main occupation of this region. During the British period, Mizoram became a part of the territory of the British India in 1891 though the administration of the villages were left to the local chieftains. The influence of the British also extended to conversion into Christianity. After independence of India, Mizoram continued to be part of Assam. In 1966 the Mizos resorted to the use of armed struggle to put forth their demands to set up a homeland. It was in 1986 that peace was established and Mizoram joined the main stream with the Indian Union.
Mizoram is situated between 21-58o to 24o 29' north latitude and 92o 29' to 93o 22' east longitude. The tropic of Cancer passes near the capital, Aizawl town.
Mizoram occupies the north east corner of India. In shape it is rather like a narrow and inverted triangle. It is bounded on the north by the district of Cachar (Assam) and the state of Manipur, on the east and south by Chin Hills and Arakan (Myanmar) on the west by the Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh and the state of Tripura. Mizoram borders three states of India - Assam , Manipur and Tripura. Its geographical borders with Assam, Manipur and Tripura extended over 123 km, 95 km and 66 km, respectively. Mizoram is a land of hills. The hills run in ridges from north to south. They have an average height of 900 metres, the highest point being the Blue Mountain (2165 metres).
The economic life of the Mizos has always been centered around jhum or shifting cultivation. The crops grown in the jhum are mixed. The principal crop is paddy and others are maize, cucumber, beans, arum, ginger, mustard, sesame, cotton etc. After clearing the burnt jhum, seeds for crops other than paddy are sown. Towards the end of April near the full moon time, paddy is sown. Mainly two types of paddy seeds are sown in the same field - early paddy and principal paddy. Yield of early paddy is rather poor but it ripens early and provides sustenance till the principal paddy is harvested.
There is vast scope for cultivation of tapioca, sugarcane, cotton, pulses and oilseeds in the state.
Some pulses like cowpea, rice beans and French beans are cultivated in the jhums. Oilseeds crops like sesame, mustard and soybean are growing well in the state.